The Bulgarians Are In The Foundation Of The World Civilization – A Brief History Of The Ancient World

Автор: Няма коментари Сподели:

The material published below is a report sent back in 1996 for an annual historical conference in Varna (Bulgaria), where, however, it did not see publicity. His author Konstantin Kamenov supplemented and edited it years later and presented it at a gathering held in Plovdiv (Bulgaria) on May 14, 2016. He provided it for publication in our media (originally in:, translated it from Bulgarian to English in order to make it accessible to the rest of the world).




  • Did you know that the Bulgarians are the most ancient people and one of the two chosen peoples on Earth?
  • Did you know that the Bulgarians are the people who are direct descendants of Atlantis?
  • Did you know that the Vedas, the Mahabharata, the Zend Avesta, the canonical Buddhist texts and many other sacred books were Bulgarian work?
  • Did you know that the Bulgarians created Elam, Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and the Hun-nu culture?
  • Did you know that the Bulgarians created the Sumerian and the Aryan cultures?
  • Did you know that the Bulgarians gave culture to the big Indian tribes (note: in America) and were declared by the Indians to be the white gods?
  • Did you know that Bulgarians gave culture to Japan, China and India?
  • Did you know that the Bulgarians created the Creto-Minoan culture and Egypt of the pharaohs?
  • Did you know that Orpheus, Buddha, Zarathustra, Zalmoxis, Decenaeus, Burebista, Gilgamesh and many other ancient great initiates had Bulgarian roots?
  • Did you know that the genetic line of Christ’s family was Bulgarian?
  • Did you know that Turks, Mongols, Tatars, as well as European nations have a common ancestry only through the Bulgarians?
  • Did you know that the scientific knowledge which Bulgarians used in ancient times was in many cases greater than today?

We will briefly dwell on these facts in the present report, describing (proto-) Bulgarian history from Atlantis to Avitohol’s Bulgaria (note: i.e. Bulgaria as we know it today).

It is not for nothing that many of the great initiates, as well as many of the great prophets on Earth, have noted that the most difficult place to grow spiritually as a person is during the last rebirth, which took place among the Bulgarians in the Balkans. The Teacher Beinsa Duno notes:

“What does Bulgaria represent? – It is a place where everything grows well. Whoever wants to learn how to grow properly should come to Bulgaria and become a Bulgarian! The Bulgarian is a chosen people, as is the Jew. […]

When the spiritual world wants to temper a person, to give him firmness, it sends him to Earth among the Bulgarians. When he wants to give some great spirit firmness, he again sends him to Earth to be born as a Bulgarian. The Bulgarian is a professor of firmness. In this regard, when it comes to establishing some Divine idea, one must be Bulgarian. […]

“Bulgarian” in the cosmic sense of the word is “The Man of the Spirit”. [1]

Academician D. Likhachev  notes: “Bulgaria is the country of the Spirit. ” [2]

Note: Beinsa Duno is known in Bulgaria as the Teacher – spiritually enlighten teacher who lived and was active in the end of 19th and in the first half of 20th century; his Bulgarian birth name was Petar Danov, but after initiation he got his spiritual name Beinsa Duno; he left a big legacy (teachings, books, disciples, followers etc) whose purpose was to introduce in the world the Spiritual Christianity suitable for the new epoch of Aquarius – the epoch of Love and Freedom, i.e. his teaching is and will be suitable for the level of consciousness of the people of the new epoch, which epoch has started in year 1914. In his teaching there is no centralized organization like church and temples, but the idea is that everybody must implement within himself/herself the internal holy church, i.e. you and your heart becomes the temple in which God’s spirit lives. This means the level of love with which people work and manifest themselves in their lives will have to increase dramatically. He also gives information and guidance for everyday life, the structure of society, education, marriage, medicine etc. Overall his teaching and guidance is something that is applicable and one lives and uses on a daily basis. The Bulgarians have the spiritual task to adopt his teaching and spread it to the rest of the world.

In our publishing house IZ “Roots” we came to the conclusion that Bulgarian means a Spiritually Elevated Nobleman, without being in a semantic contradiction either with the Teacher or with Likhachov, because at the time when our ethnonym was established, the term for a human (AR) referred specially to a nobleman (AR) who was seen as the mirror of God (RA).

Researching the origin of this people, we were able to go back to the 12th millennium BC.

A large country existed then, regardless of the sparsely populated land in those years. This was Atlantis, whose other self-name is Poseidonia. According to the most reliable information we have, it was administratively organized in the form of four twin principalities mirroring the sky. From various ancient sources it could be understood that some of the technologies used by the Atlanteans surpassed modern ones. The country was situated on a large island in the Atlantic Ocean. The spiritual Atlantean principality of wisdom, called  Manu, was situated outside the island in northern Africa and covered the lands of the plateau of the same name in present-day Libya.

The Atlanteans waged a severe war with the only other country on Earth in that era for which we originally used the name non-Hellenic Athens. The self-name of this large group of tribes was Neith. The battles between them lasted long, by today’s understanding of wars, because against Atlantean technology, the Neith pitted psy techniques and other spiritual ways to deter the enemy and their superweapons.

Calculating using the method of the Old Bulgarian Calendar, it was found that Atlantis most likely died in 11,838 BC from a global cataclysm. In a Buddhist manuscript from Lhasa we found the important text of these events, when the Lord, named  Ra-Mu, notes what will happen to the last Atlanteans: “You will all die with your servants and your wealth, and from your ashes will arise a new people. If they also forget that one is superior because one contributes and not because one benefits, they will suffer the same fate.’

After these events, the Atlanteans of the Principality of Manu survived this ancient state. They settled with the Neiths, who lived in the Balkans and around the freshwater Black Sea lake. There was no warfare between them and they quickly formed into a single group of large tribes, giving rise to the (proto-) Thracians. When writing about the (proto-) Thracians, we need to clarify a few details:

First – these were the first (proto-) Bulgarians.

Second – the term (proto-) is only temporary to the Bulgarians and was introduced into this ethnonym by IZ “Roots” already between 1992 and 1996.

Thirdly, the spiritual mission of the (proto-) Bulgarians began from this moment. They were summoned to contribute, which is why they are one of the two chosen peoples in the world.



After the destruction of Atlantis, the Paleolithic world was extremely sparsely populated, in danger of even disappearing. The lands around the freshwater Black Sea lake, inhabited by the (proto-) Thracians, were the best for the development of life in that era. Lots of arable land, lots of drinking water – both lakes and rivers.

The (Proto-) Thracians formed into four major tribal groups. These were Moesi, Bithyni, Pelasgians, and about the fourth one, it is still disputed which one was exactly. However, they all lived under the common name of Perke and they spoke one proto language. The main god they worshiped after many millennia became popular as the God of Princes and was named Hermes. Their knowledge of the universe was extremely rich, and they believed that everything in heaven has a mirror counterpart on Earth. Since the constellations are the largest configurations in the Cosmos, even the (proto-) Thracians began to make copies of them in the form of groups of mounds. At the same time, the smaller tribes also had their own patron stars, as they also had birth dates. The whole ritual was preserved until the emergence of Danube Bulgaria. When several sons were born to a ruler, they began to rule different parts of the tribes, each bearing the name of the one who led it. This is how the birth dates of the tribes were known, as well as the patron stars. The life of the (proto-) Thracians was also determined by the important Divine maxims “Knowledge is not for everyone” and “Close the doors to the uninitiated”. These basic facts explain why at certain periods, seemingly without reason, tribes change their lands without fighting. They have writings, but they transmit the knowledge only to initiates, and that by word of mouth. Rituals were performed extremely mystically in secret places. The supreme priest was also a king. Due to all these features, in IZ “Roots” we characterized the culture of the (proto-) Thracians as open Hermeticism.

However, it is this culture that helped them to grow faster than the small tribes in other parts of the world. They had grown greatly in numbers and had mastered and cultivated the lands from Asia Minor, the Balkans to the middle Danube along its course. As various great scholars [3]   [4] have pointed out, these are the lands of the Indo-Europeans, who turned out to be the (proto-) Thracians. For their group in the Bulgarian lands, archaeologists H. Todorova and Iv. Vaisov noted after many years of research that as early as the 8th millennium BC they had completed The Second Stage of the Neolithic Revolution. Important centers for this cultural revolution for the transformation of the people at that time were Karanovo, Gradeshnica, Tartaria, Vinca, Hotnitsa, Dispilio, Jas Tepe, Randolin dol, Slatina, undoubtedly culture Plovdiv  and many others throughout the territory of Bulgaria. It was among these cultures that the proto-scripts of  Sumer, Crete, Egypt, Elam, and various other alphabets were discovered. The TSU knowledge that the ancestors possessed was also extremely important, because it was rediscovered in modern times only by Einstein and Heisenberg. It can also be traced in detail through some of the cultures created by the (proto-) Thracians and (proto-) Bulgarians. The basis of the Elam-Mohenjo-Daro-Harappa-Hung-Nu cultures can be traced through the material uniformity discovered by archeology along the way of their origin, and their spiritual existence is encoded in the TSU (The Supreme Unity). It is a (proto-) Bulgarian understanding that everything that exists was originally emitted in a series of triplets of The Supreme Unity, including the entire Universe. The triplets were diverse, interconnected and coherent, emanating in pulsations (pulses). They in turn became new centers of radiation. Today’s science is only now rediscovering the knowledge of our ancient ancestors. The entire way of life and state structure of the Eastern (proto-) Bulgarians obeyed the trinity. Already the (proto-) Thracian and (proto-) Bulgarian astronomical time calculation became the most perfect ever used on Earth. Our distant ancestors, who worshiped the sunrises and sunsets, as well as the rising and setting of the moon, were by no means sun-worshippers or fire-worshippers. They all professed an ancient religious-philosophical system. The first researcher who thought about The Supreme Unity of the (proto-) Bulgarians was D. Sasalov. Manifestations of  TSU were also found on a processed stone from the Plovdiv’s Three Hills and on ceramic fragments, as well as on a figure from Hemus (note: the ancient name of the mountain nowadays called “Stara Planina” or in English “The Old Mountain”) resembling a sphinx or celestial dragon. The latter was stolen, perhaps because of its uniqueness in the world culture. It is necessary to know that during the creation of the Hermetic culture in the Egypt of the pharaohs, the (proto-) Thracians preserved for mankind the spiritual-philosophical book “Poimadres”, also containing the perceptions of TSU. In it, the Lord – God (the highest being) bears the nickname Hermes Trismegistus, where the idea of ​​the trinity of the Universe is preserved to the highest degree.

TSU philosophy in different eras was found in the spirituality of faith, both of all large (proto-) Bulgarian groups and in tribes that broke away from them. Further in the report, we will present information from the most important of them, in which the sacred sign of the trinity was encoded, a symbol of the supreme god since the time before the Neolithic.



In the 8th millennium BC the Earth’s poles were changing their places earlier than usual and the ices of the older poles were starting to melt faster. The world’s ocean level was rising. For the period described, only three small seas existed in place of the Mediterranean Sea. A dry land connected the Balkans with part of Africa. The Black Sea was also a freshwater lake, whose western shores were approximately 360 km away in eastern direction of the present line or 30 m below the present level. All this greatly affected the change of the Earth’s climate. In addition to the debit of the world’s oceans, precipitation was also increasing, as is the flow of rivers. The Black, Caspian and Aral seas began to widen as a result of these changes. Gradually they merged into one water basin. Because of this, (proto-) Thracian tribes migrated to new lands for the first time. The groups of tribes were mostly of Bithyni, who at that time bore the unifying tribal name Honi. Through the (proto-) Thracian languages Honi translates as “Those who live on the northern slope”. The first group of them settled in Mesopotamia, and the majority of the tribes continued further east. They settled as far as the lands of the fertile valleys in those centuries, Gobi and Tarim.

Shortly after their departure from the Balkans, the great Black Sea flood occurred. A great earthquake severed the land link between Europe and Africa, and the Strait of Gibraltar was formed at the Iberian Peninsula, through which a huge amount of water from the Atlantic rushed in. Large areas of North Africa were flooded. The first contours of the Mediterranean Sea were formed. The Dardanelles and the Thracian Bosphorus were formed, and the salty sea water passed through them and into the Black Sea lake. Although it was for a time merged with both the Caspian and the Aral, it was still fresh water lake. From this cataclysm, it ceased to be a drinking source for the population and turned, once again, into a sea. Its level raised from 3 to 30 meters above the current level, flooding some coastal villages. The great flood of the Balkans, however, came from the Mediterranean Sea, whose waters invade the courses of the rivers flowing into it. Archaeologists established the magnitude of this disaster through the remains of a large Neolithic settlement in today’s Kardzhali town (Bulgaria). It is one of the many obliterated by the sea:

“This settlement is located in the center of the city… covering an area of ​​625 square meters… However, the life of the settlement in Kardzhali ceased to exist…

…towards the end of the Early Neolithic Karanovo I cultural group in Thrace…

Then some settlements in Thrace and the basin of the Arda River seem to have been struck by disastrous disasters that cut short their existence (…) in Kardzhali… at the beginning of the Old Iron Age, the Thracians laid the foundations of a new settlement.” [5]

Only the high Rhodopes mountains protected the Thracian lowland from the possibility of it becoming a bottom of a water basin.

This flood was the main reason that forced a new part of the (proto-) Thracians to move first to the north to the region of present-day Baltica, then to move to new lands.

Before we continue with the migrations, we should pay a little more attention to the Black Sea Flood. According to  B. Rogev, the longest cycle in the solar Bulgarian calendar is 6328 years. On the king Omurtag inscription from 820-823 AD, it was written:  “…The name is (…) The year of the appearance of the true God was 6328. They sacrificed and swore by (…) the  books” [6]. Calculated using the Old Bulgarian calendar and the year the text was written, it turns out that the event that happened when the “true god” appeared and when the books were sworn, happened in 5508-5505. In fact, these are the two starting years of the calendar, according to the two versions of the Bible. Since, according to these sacred texts, Adam was created then, in our earlier studies, in order not to contradict spiritual texts, we indicated the Black Sea Flood as Adamic. That’s when the flood happened and it lasted for three years. The facts about this cataclysm are indisputable and scientists such as P. Dimitrov, W. Ryan, W. Pitman [7] proved it, but, like other colleagues, declared the Black Sea Flood to be Noah’s.

We must clarify that the Adamic flood (5508-5505 BC) was not the last cataclysm of this kind that is related to the history of our ancestors. In the 4th millennium BC (3266 BC) the valley of the Two Rivers and the cities that were built there by the Sumerians were flooded by the Tigris and Euphrates. This happened as a result of the rapidly melting snows on the mountain ridges of northern Mesopotamia and a week of torrential rain.

In the Old Testament, the days during which the torrential rains took place, raising the level of the rivers, were also misplaced. The flood in the Black Sea Lake was longer. In  Noah’s flood, the rainfall lasted 40 days, and in the Sumerian flood or flood of Utnapishtim (Ziunsudra)  – only 7. The revised Pentateuch (Torah) applies the 40 days to Noah’s flood. These inaccuracies and falsifications were noticed even by the ancient historiographers, but they led astray almost all our scientists, as well as the famous American underwater archaeologist  Prof. Ballard. Earth’s cataclysms of the type of flood were many in number, which is why we cannot irresponsibly call each of them Noah.

The disaster in the 6th millennium BC also plays another essential role in the development of mankind. A part of the (proto-) Thracian tribes that started and continued the development of the Neolithic revolution remained on the Balkan Peninsula, but they changed the places of their main cultures. On the way of migration from the Balkans to the east, some of the Honi tribes participated in the creation of  Elam, and then Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.

From archaeological research, it has been found that only in the eastern part of the (proto-) Bulgarian Hun-Nu in the Gobi, there are more than fifty uncovered cities and several tens of thousands of burial mounds. Apart from them, mining and agriculture were attested. All this speaks of a settled (not nomadic) way of life and a highly developed culture.



It was carried out in the 4th millennium BC. The neolithization of the (proto-) Thracian population remaining in the Balkans, as well as of those who moved to Asia, brought about two main changes. The first is the shift from an appropriating economy to the production of material goods, which in turn characterizes the sedentary lifestyle. The second is the large population growth. According to recent studies, birth rates have increased with three children per family compared to Paleolithic man. Expressed as a percentage, growth was initially 0.005% and increased from 0.8 to 1% per year. Even if we assume an increase of only 0.2%, the population will double in 350 years. Among the autochthonous (proto-) Thracian population, living on a much smaller territory, a demographic explosion occurred, which forced a large part to undertake larger-scale migrations to the East. This happened between the 6th and 4th millennium BC. This second emigrant wave is to the south of the Black Sea. It is mostly from large Moesi (proto-) Thracian groups. They originally created the culture Sumer in ready-made form.

The principle of transferring culture in a ready-made form was already started by the Honi in the 6th millennium BC. After Sumer, the larger group settled in the southeastern Caspian, and other tribes mastered the regions of today’s Karakum desert (south), to the Syr-Darya river (north), and to the east to Mount Imai (Imeon, modern day Pamir). In the mentioned desert, after archaeological excavations by Soviet scientists, a ziggurat was discovered. Unlike similar Mesopotamian structures, however, the Central Asian temple was dug out of the sand to its full height. The discovery was next to the village of Meana (translated as Lord), on Alton Tepe Hill in the southern part of the Karakum Desert. An entire city from the Eneolithic or Early Bronze Age was preserved there. Scholars agree that it was one of the first cities. Archaeologist V. Masson notes that the stepped tower in it seems to be based on projects from Mesopotamia, the type of which is preserved in the famous Tower of Babel.

The most important information due to V. Masson, which confirms our view, is that the culture from the Balkans was transferred to Mesopotamia, after which the Aryans arose. They are a consequence of the archaeological activity in the area between the Pamirs and the Caspian Sea: “This highly developed culture of the type of the monuments of the early farmers in Northern Afghanistan finds no local predecessors. In the valleys of Bactria, it appears in a finished form… with Mesopotamian features, and the gray clay pottery is more characteristic of the production centers of the South-Eastern Caspian region […] on the territories of modern Afghanistan, the foundations of urban civilizations of the ancient eastern type were laid… ” [8]

In fact, the (proto-) Bulgarians brought their culture from the Balkans, because it also appeared in Sumer in a ready-made form. Not for nothing in the Mesopotamian epics, the mythological hero Gilgamesh (Bilgamesh) noted that the Sumerian homeland was in the west.

During the early centuries of the 4th millennium BC, part of the (proto-) Bulgarian Hun group, living in the flourishing Gobi and Tarim valleys, also settled in the more northern lands around the Yenisey. “…2357 BC (according to Chinese sources – note K.K.) north and northwest of the Celestial Empire (i.e. China) from the deepest antiquity inhabited the Ding-lin (…Dulo) tribes, generally called Hun-nu (or translated : the northern white barbarians). From an archaeological point of view, the most remarkable discoveries were made in the hollows of the Minusyn Valley of the Yenisey River (Upper and Middle Yenisey), where archaeological findings dating from the Late Bronze Age were found, but also completely identical to the archaeological findings most often associated with the Scythians, located on the terrains of Central and Eastern Europe.” [9] It is necessary to note that during this era the (proto-) Thracian Cimmerians were noted as ScythiansScientists such as S. P. Tolstov, V. Masson, Grum-Grzhimailo, Okladnikov, Sarianidi, etc. also gave views on the question of the Hunnic cultures, which complement each other.

The bearers  of the Andronov archaeological culture between 1700 and 1200 BC occupied the space in the Western half of Southern Siberia and Kazakhstan up to the Urals. They belonged to the white race and in the 18th century BC they dominated the Minusyn valley and little by little gathered near the Yenisey with the representatives of the Glazov archaeological culture. The great similarity between the Andronovo monuments and wooden buildings in the Lower Volga, Don and Donetsk steppes has been noted more than once. But neither Andronovites nor Glazovites played a primary role in Southern Siberia in 2nd millennium BC. These were rather the Dinlins who inhabited the outskirts of the Gobi (the Shasai sand country). They were located in the Sayano-Altai High Plateau, the Minusin Basin and the Tuvina Region.

And one more thing: both here and on the terrains of Central Asia proper, this culture is characterized by its Mesopotamian features, and also that in these places this material culture was brought in a ready-made form!” [10] [11]

The smaller groups of cultures received help from the two main cultures of the (proto-) Bulgarians in Central Asia, the Gobi and the Tarim. After the 4th millennium BC for them we use the scientific terms (proto-) Bulgarian Aryan culture and Hun-Nu culture. However, it is still widely speculated that the foundations of this culture were the Turks, given that they did not yet exist in those centuries.

Along the path of the Indians who emigrated from South-East Asia through the Bering Strait to America, followed part of the Eastern (proto-) Bulgarian Huns, who brought them the new culture. Its essence was built on the worship of God as a solar spiritual being and the pyramidal buildings. The Mayan calendar is brought in ready-made form. It is a revised Old Bulgarian Calendar and is identical to the Sumerian calendar. The Polish astronomer L. Seidler proved that this calendar was created at the latitude of the lower Danube. It is of (proto-) Thracian root. This is how the (proto-) Bulgarians were described in some of the Indian books:

“Memories of the white man are also found on a…plateau – Tiahuanaco, at an altitude of 4000 meters (…) When Pizarro came here in 1532, the Indians named the conquistadors “viracocha” – white teachers. Their more or less forgotten myths tell of the extinct race of the teachers, of the white giants who arrived from abroad – the race of the Sons of the Sun. They ruled and taught lessons for millennia. They disappeared suddenly.” [12]

In another legend, the leader of the white teachers was seen as a god:  “…he was a mysterious person, a white man with a powerful body, a high forehead, very large eyes and a long beard. A long garment covered him down to the feet. He was a god of peace and accepted only flowers and fruits as sacrificial gifts.”

Another Central American tale says:

“…Quetzalcoatl came from the sea in a ship or boat that moved without oars…”  [13]

Regardless of whether it is about Quetzalcoatl, Kukulcan, Wotan, Gutsumac or Itzamna, all peoples claim in their myths that they:

“…came from a great distance from the Eastern Sea, and in the same way later left the peoples again”;

“Kukulkan came with 19 companions, of whom two were gods of fishermen, two others were gods of agriculture, and one was a god of thunder…

They stayed in Yucatan for 10 years. Kukulkan issued wise laws, then set sails and disappeared in the direction of the rising sun…” (K. Irwin[14].

During the research, it was established that after spreading the knowledge, a part of the (proto-) Bulgarians continued to live among other tribes and peoples. However, large groups were returning after millennia to their Balkan homeland. There were also Bulgarian groups that returned to Europe and formed their own states in other lands. This is also confirmed by the spread of the sacred sign, which is a symbol of the Supreme God of the spiritually elevated tribe of the (proto-) Bulgarian Huns and Aryans. Its prototype is among the (proto-) Thracians. It is about epsilon (Y) in various combinations with two hasti (II), with omega (Ω), as well as some other signs mistakenly identified as ancient Greek.

The divine sign has been found at several sacredly important sites in Thrace (Bulgaria). It is included in entire stone inscriptions created before the Flood of the 6th millennium BC. Wherever they settled, after the two great migration waves, the sign of the Supreme God also appeared. The (Proto-) Bulgarian Aryans, who gave the basis of the so called Vedic knowledge, and subsequently the Bulgarian-Bactrians, who created the Avestan and Buddhist religions, carried the symbol epsilon (Y) in the form of a paired horse image.

On the one hand, it is taken as a sign of mythological dialectic in these spiritual teachings, on the other hand it reflects their dualistic cosmogony. The horse is one of the sacred animals among the (proto-) Bulgarians, therefore its paired image also represents a kind of God’s throne.

The deified symbol also appears after millennia on the coins of the (ancient) Bulgarian Khorezmian and Sogdian dominions. It occurs as an emphasis that the royal power came from God in Parthia, where they also emphasize their (proto-) Bulgarian roots. It is also established in the culture of the (ancient) Bulgarian Sarmatians and Sauromatians.

We should note that the variations of epsilon (Y) as a symbol of God continued in later times and is found in all peoples who came into contact with the (proto-) Bulgarians or descended from them. Enumerating them from east to west, we find that the Divine Sign is found among Turks, Mongols, Hindus, Persians, Romans, Germanic tribes, and others.

In Avitochol’s Bulgaria, the symbol is popular mostly in the form of an epsilon with two hasti (IYI) . On the one hand, this is the term for the Supreme God IYI (YUI), on the other hand, it shows his triune essence, as well as the simultaneity of the male and female principles.

In connection with what was written above, we want to propose another hypothesis for which there is a lot of evidence. According to Arab reports from the 9th – 10th centuries, one of the (ancient) Bulgarian tribes of Volga Bulgaria was named the Esegel. It moved north to the Volga River from the area where the Essenes lived (Essenes: mystic Jewish sect during the Second Temple period that flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD).

We managed to establish that the Arabic suffix GEL is identical to the (ancient-) Bulgarian GI. It is equivalent to the modern Bulgarian preposition OT (from). In this way, the name ESSEGI is translated as (derived from) FROM ESE  – singular form of the well-known Essenes of antiquity. They were mentioned in several ancient books of various peoples, as preservers of human knowledge and achievements. One of the Essenes was Christ himself. Strange as it may sound, another of their alumni was Buddha. This is also one of the reasons why great similarities can be found between apostolic Christianity and Buddhism. We must remind that the Buddha’s name is  Siddhartha Gautama, and his nickname is Sakaya (Shaka) Muni or the wise (divine) saka. The Sakas, on the other hand, are from the (proto-) Thracian Moesi and lived with the (proto-) Bulgarian Aryans. Basic ideas from Buddhism, identical to apostolic Christianity, established the missions of the priests Hippolyte Desiderre, Gerbilo, Gruber, Horace de la Penna and Monsignor Hook. They were made between the 17th and 19th centuries and note: “Their clothes are like those of the apostles in the ancient paintings; they put on a miter like the bishops (…) believe in the One God and in the Holy Trinity, in heaven, hell and purgatory; they make litanies, almsgiving, prayers and supplications to the dead; they have many monasteries full of monks and novices who, in addition to the threefold vow of poverty, obedience and charity, also take several others.(…) They serve each other with Holy water, crosses and rosaries.”

Missionaries, who gave record of Buddhism, did a mistake in supposing that it arose out of Christianity. Firstly – Buddha lived before Christ and secondly – both Brahmanism, Druids (clerical disciples of the (proto-) Bulgarians from Central Asia) and Buddhism, as well as Orphism and Essenism, are on the moral-ethical and philosophical side, which became the basis of the ritualistics of the Covenant restored by the Son of God Yeshua (Jesus). They all have an older, common (proto-) Bulgarian or (proto-) Thracian root that is universal. The knowledge which the travelers define as rituals was given in the first Testament by God to the people. We think this happened at least around 100 000 BC. It is also necessary to know that Buddhism became the basis of Japanese culture and the unification of many tribes into the Japanese nation.

The Chinese chronicles themselves provide information that the first Chinese tribes received culture from the Hun-nu group of the (proto-) Bulgarians. As we understand from these texts, in the 3rd millennium BC, when this happened, the autochthonous tribes were few in number and divided. The first work undertaken by the Hun-nu was that they organized a number of Chinese tribes into larger tribal groups. They then gave them the foundations of all the culture necessary for this Asian population. Interesting information reached the historiography in order to develop and confirm this thesis. Many scholars still cannot assimilate why the Chinese committed scientific falsifications and why they prevented historians from entering the (proto-) Bulgarian Hun-nu settlements. The answer lies in the doctrine followed by the rulers of modern China, namely, that their country had built a specific culture that was not influenced by any other people. Many of the world’s achievements have even been claimed to be Chinese inventions without offering any facts to support these claims. In particular, the question of who gave the world the chariot was long debated among the scientific world. Most authors argued that the borrowing of chariot technology came from the West and was related to the Indo-Iranian presence in southern Asia and the influence it had on the continent’s indigenous population. Chinese archaeologists defended the hypothesis that the chariot and the domestication of the horse were Chinese achievements.

An end of the controversy was put on the Chinese side, after the publication of the observation of of  Yang Bao Chen [15]. He noticed that among the Inca chariots there was also one decorated with “western” decorations, both on the chariot and on the dagger.

All this refers to the period around the III-II millennium BC, when powerful centers of civilization were already built, both in East and Central South Asia.

The facts can also be well traced through the ancient Chinese historians  Shiji, Qianhianshu, Beishi, Houhanshu, Suishu, Tangshu. They describe how the Hun-nu people (northern white barbarians; Chinese lang.) gave the culture to the Chinese. In recent history, the (proto-) Bulgarians marked with a Chinese term became known as Huns.



Useful for science were the discovered by a Swedish archaeological expedition large stone blocks with runic writing from the 3rd millennium BC in the Gobi desert. It was proved that the letters were of the (proto-) Bulgarian Huns. Of great interest, in the same desert, are the discoveries of the Russian paleontologist I. A. Efremov. His expedition also found large, cubic blocks of stone, from the same period, with runic writing. These letters turned out to be identical to the runes on the Lithuanian flag. Several important ancient Chinese texts note: “From Fergana westward to the state of Parthia there is a great variety of dialects, but the language is too similar, and in conversation the people understand each other.” From the Tien Shan westward to Parthia all are closely related to the Huns.” (Shi-gu) In the state Funam (present-day Cambodia) “…they have books and keep them in an archive. Their writing resembles that of the Huns.”

At the same time, among the (proto-) Bulgarian Aryans, the culture can be found through the Vedic teachings, the “Mahabharata”. The reformist spiritual work “Zend-Avesta” by Zarathusha (Zarathustra; Zoroaster) is also quite important. This prince from the city of Balkh edited the Vedas, presenting the first dualistic spiritual teaching. While the works of the Brahmanas have come down to us only in the Sanskrit language from later records, some of the teachings of the Essenes are known to us mainly through Aramaic. The language spoken by Yeshua. Zarathushua’s work is manifested through the Avestan. Avestan script is the basis of later Parsi (Farsi). These languages ​​are known to science as the only Aryan languages, which in our opinion is a big mistake. The first Aryan is Cyriali. It appears already with the (proto-) Bulgarian Huns, when they crossed the Gobi. According to G. Krastev, their language Cyriali means supreme. The Russian linguist Turchaninov is convinced that Phoenician, Aramaic, and all Western alphabets, including Greek and Latin, are derived from it.

According to stone inscriptions from the capital of Bactria, Balkh, it was found out that Kashmiri also has many features in common with Old Aramaic. The latter is the oldest branch of the West Semitic language spoken by Jesus and his disciples.

On the Kashmiri language there is a clearly expressed overall impact of the language of the Aryan (proto-) Bulgarian group. The Arameans are one of the spiritual communities of Sumer, who spoke a Sumerian dialect. Thus in the center of Bactria appear inscriptions mistakenly considered by some to be Aramaic, but they are in Kashmiri.

The “Vedaswere originally written in the so-called Brahmi, whose name comes from the name of the Supreme Lord Brahma. Hence we conclude that the translation of brahmi also means supreme or supremely divine. Thus, it can be assumed that Cyriali and Brahmi are different names with identical semantics of similar scripts, derived from the primary language of single (proto-) peoples.

It is noteworthy that the messages of the Essenes are analogous to those of Brahmanism (see: the “Upanishads” and the “Vedas”). Through these facts one can follow different geographical areas with identical philosophies such as the Brahmanical, the reformed Avestan, the Essene, the Buddhist, the TSU teaching, Orphism, etc. In turn, it has been established the thesis that their root was common, coming from before the big flood event.

An important discovery in archeology was made in the middle of the 20th century, which changed many theories about ancient Asian cultures. It became popular as a library in Western Sayan: “Each of the ‘books’ is made of stone and weighs about one ton…It turned out that writing existed in Tuva even before the new era. There are ancient Indian, Chinese and Oirot writings on the rocks.” [16]  In these stone books, apart from discovering the connection between the main (proto-) Bulgarian scripts, the important meaning of the epsilon (Y) was traced again.

In 2000, at the Milan Symposium, the Belgian scholar Harald Harman called the (proto-) Thracian script the oldest in the world and declared it to be the basis of the later Thracian script as well as the Cyrillic alphabet. The first written characters created by human hands appeared in Bulgaria and other Balkan countries, and not in Mesopotamia, as was believed until now. Writing did not originate in Mesopotamia, China, or Egypt. It appeared even before Adam’s flood.

Sanskrit appeared permanently in Central Asia only in the 5th century BC, as well as its grammar, which was created by the (proto-) Bulgarian Brahmin Panini. This occurred in order to give culture to the Hindus as well. Other scholars point to Patanjali, Kudalinji and others as authors. Nevertheless, the earliest Sanskrit originated in the area of ​​present day Bulgaria, as noted by the Indian professor Rama Kaushik. At a lecture at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski” in the seventies of the 20th century, he reported that he had discovered the most ancient Sanskrit written on a stone embedded in a fountain in the town of Chiprovtsi (Bulgaria).

As a clarification, we will note that (proto-) Thracian Sanskrit is several millennia before Christ and is from the Neolithic period. Here are the enthusiastic words of  William Jones , who became theory in the Comparative Linguistics: “The Sanskrit language has an amazing structure. It is more perfect than the Greek language, richer than the Latin, and more beautiful than either of them, but preserving an exceedingly close relationship with these two languages… The relationship is so strong that no philologist who would engage in the study of these three languages, cannot but believe that they all sprang from a common source, which perhaps no longer exists.”  Jones had no way of knowing in his early research that the basis of the proto-language was preserved through the Thracian and Central Asian (proto-) Bulgarian dialects in many of the modern languages. It is most preserved in today’s Bulgarian dialects.

The Scottish prehistorian Stewart Pigot refers to the clay wheel discovered by the archaeologist Petar Detev during excavations in Plovdiv region (Bulgaria). Through it, he substantiates the thesis that culture was transferred from the Balkans to Elam and Sumer, thereby overlapping the spread of spiritual culture with material culture.

In order to see the undried root with the native (proto-) Thracian languages, we will show the important distribution of the three sacred lexemes  Dan (Din, Dun, Ton, Don), Deva (Dava)  and  Manu (Maina, Mainyu). In the mythology that the ancient Hindus adopted from the Aryans, Vritra‘s mother is called Danu, with the semantics of the name stream, but divine. In Avestan DANU is also a word for stream or river, and in the later Iranian DANU is river or water, in both cases sacred. Later translated into Arabic, it functions under the meaning God (Spirit).

Deva and Manu or Maina are attested in the same languages ​​as in Minoan, with a divinity semantics that all three lexemes carry as early as the (proto-) Thracians.

With the presence of so many languages ​​with scripts that prove to be the work of (proto-) Thracian tribes, the logical question immediately follows that scientists have been asking for decades: “Where is the script of the real Thracians and does it exist at all?”

The main function of language and writing is that they are part of the culture of a tribe or people. The (proto-) Thracian tribes that left their homeland and had to come into contact with tribes that were different in nature and degree of development, had to reorient part of their culture in some places. It includes a sedentary or nomadic way of life, construction and irrigation technology, use of a new writing system, etc.

In contrast to them, the rest of their homeland, true Thracians, mainly profess Hermeticism as a type of culture. Mysteries and mystery complexes are created, but not for everyone. As Orpheus noted: “Shut the doors to the uninitiated!”. The reports of various ancient authors about the wooden tablets with a letter of this Thracian demiurge are extremely numerous. From other ancient authors we learn that, according to Orpheus, a letter had to be semantically saturated with sound, color, number and tone. The visit of this Thracian to Egypt is well known, where he brought two scripts – sacred and generally available. Perhaps the second is the Carian alphabet. It was used by Herodotus initially, who was from the Thracian tribe of Kari. Texts written in Carian script, were left in one of the most sacred Egyptian temples at Thebes, alongside hieroglyphics, which the ancient Greeks never managed to do. For this reason, Dionysus The Thracian created a GRAMMAR for the new Hellenic way of thinking.

Nor should we forget the indisputable connection established between Sanskrit and Hebrew, as well as between the Sumerian and Turkic languages. Such facts support the irrefutable thesis that the homeland of the proto-language is the (proto-) Thracians of the Balkans. The peoples who was the teacher, who made all these connections between cultures and peoples over the millennia, are the (proto-) Bulgarians.


Large groups of the two main (proto-) Bulgarian enlightening waves of Hun-nu and Aryans, after many millennia of settling in Asia, returned to Europe. A part of them, together with the main group, of the separated millennia before Christ from the (proto-) Thracians, Cimmerians, participated in the creation of almost all European peoples (see the Appendix). Another part returned to its ancestral homeland in the Balkans. Various ancient authors write about them: “Crossing from here (southern – K.K.) Danube, the Bulgarians came to their native brothers.” [17]

Among the scattered cultures, a genetic study would prove an ancestral connection between Turks, Welsh, Portuguese, Poles, partly English, Poles, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, etc.. It will certainly come to the conclusion that these peoples also have heredity with some of the white pharaohs. And the genetic links, and not only these ones, can be traced through the Bulgarians.

As for the culture of the pharaohs, it is not of Egyptian nationality, nor of any other African population, as some scholars try to write about it more popularly. It is a culture carried over in a ready-made form from the (proto-) Thracians in the Balkans to Egypt. It is traceable and proven through the rare blood type of ancient pharaohs and Thracian tribal groups [18]. At the same time, only in the archaeo-astronomical pyramid plan, in the knowledge of the Dogons and in the Old Bulgarian Calendar, three stars Sirius were known. According to the coding in the buildings from Giza and Heliopolis, the middle of the 11th millennium BC was fixed as the origin of the (proto-) Thracians [19]. The beginning of the Old Bulgarian Calendar was fixed on 25.XII.12095 BC, and it began to be used with the occurrence of the Adamic flood in 5508 BC [20]. Before creating the Egypt of the pharaohs, the (proto-) Thracians created the Creto-Minoan culture. The participants in these cases were mostly led by the Rhodope Dacians (one of the Thracian tribes).

As for the vast astronomical knowledge transferred from the Balkans to ancient Egypt, we will note only the most important one – the archaeo-astronomical layout of the buildings. While the pyramids in the Giza region are a copy of the Orion constellation [21], the archaeo-astronomical layout of the mounds in Sboryanovo (Bulgaria) and the coding of some other objects are an inflorescence of many constellations. This way of planning also developed during the second wave of resettlement of (proto-) Bulgarians from the Balkans. In her research, D. Gergova documented: “…from Etruria to Babylon in antiquity were distinguished by their archaeo-astronomical planning.”

It is also important to know that when they created Teotihuacan, they made a large-scale layout of the solar system at its center. It is only necessary to insert linguistically that the lexeme UA, as well as UAU, are for royalty, and that only among the (proto-) Bulgarian Aryans, from where the title khan originates. The view of the archaeo-astronomical plan of the city belongs to Hagar and Harliston, and the construction was not the deed of the Indians (America), but of their “white gods”, as the local population always emphasizes.

At the same time, as we have already noted, the Old Bulgarian Calendar has its own, imperfect copies among the ancient Chinese and Mayans. In both groups of tribes, a semantically identical way of writing the numbers appeared [22].

(Proto-) Bulgarian astronomy still has a strong influence on humanity, because the Old Bulgarian Solar Calendar was declared by UNESCO to be the most accurate in the world, and the Saka Lunar Calendar was adopted as the official calendar of India in 1957 [23]. We will just note, that the Sakas are a branch of the (proto-) Thracian Moesi, being part of the Aryan group of (proto-) Bulgarians.

According to anthropology, again according to ancient authors, the appearance of the Thracians was fixed as people of the white race, tall, red-haired, blond-haired, light-eyed. Characteristics inherent both to the priest of the Varna Neolithic culture [24] and to priests and pharaohs in Egypt, as well as to the White Gods of the Indians in America. Here is their description given by the Indians to the Spaniards: “…a white man of regal bearing, blue-eyed and bearded, without a head covering, wearing a ‘kuzma’ – a sleeveless tunic reaching to the knees.” [25] Another description reads: “a bearded man of medium height… While he roamed these lands, he performed miracles. Healing the sick with a touch. He spoke every language better than the natives. They called him Tunupa or Tarpaka, Viracocha-rapacha or Pachakan…” [26]. His companions, described in local legends “…were ancient in the time of the Incas”… having also built the road network of the South American Indians and the complex architecture. They represented “…white people with brown hair.” [27]. The great Native American cultures have many analogies with the culture of the pharaohs, as well as with their DNA. However, the complete set of analogies connecting Indians and pharaohs is preserved among the (proto-) Thracians and (proto-) Bulgarians, and the analogies also pass through the culture of ancient China. An interesting fact was noticed after the Spanish began to teach North Indian tribes to weave carpets. When the latter began to do it, it was not the rectilinear Spanish patterns that shone with them, but the symbols from the Chiprovtsi (Bulgaria) carpets, having an earlier analogue in the (proto-) Thracian ceramic Neolithic ornamentation.

“In the 20th century, English archaeologists were allowed to excavate in the Takla-makan desert (the former Tarim Basin). From the sand, Western scientists dug up better-preserved than mummified bodies of the Huns, their clothes and even vessels with preserved food. (…) their anthropology completely overlaps with the described appearance of the Thracians. These (proto-) Bulgarians were between 178-185 cm tall, blond and red-haired, white in color, with light colored eyes” [28].

During their millennial existence, from the time when they were (proto-) Thracians, our ancestors created three Ethiopias, two Egypts, two Europes, each of which was first in the Balkans. There were many Balkharis, Bulgars, Kush and Kushan, 19 Aryan dominions and quite a few other states and empires, some of which we still don’t know the names of. Several Bulgarian states emerged on the Old Continent, and almost all of them bear the name Bulgaria.

As it was established by genetic research, the most predominant gene in the Bulgarian population is that of the Thracians. Prof. Dr. Ivo Kremenski notes: “Bulgarians are among the oldest peoples in Europe. A large European study found a genetic marker that originated in the Balkans. We call it EM78-alpha and it turned out to be 7,800 years old. These scientific data were confirmed by our archaeologists. They found near Vratsa human bones dating back 7000 years.” Similar things we revealed by our publishing house IZ “Roots” through information from various other sciences. They all complement each other in one way or another.

“About 60% of the genes of the male Bulgarians are European – namely, 20% are from the Mediterranean haplogroups and 24% are a direct unique gene – EM78, with roots in the Balkans 7800 years old” [29].

“40% of today’s Bulgarians belong to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423which most likely originated in our Motherland in the Balkans and from there were spread throughout Europe by our ancestors during their demographic expansion after mastering agriculture.


We established that the genetic pool of the Y-chromosome among modern Bulgarians is mainly represented by Western Eurasian haplogroups (about 40% belong to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423 and 20% to R – M17). Haplogroups distributed in the Middle East (J and G) and in Southwest Asia (R-L23*) occur in frequencies of 19% and 5%, respectively. Haplogroups C, N and Q, characteristic of Altaic and Central Asian Turkic populations, occur in a negligible frequency of only 1.5%. […]

  1. *R-L23 has been found in Eastern Bulgaria since the end of the Ice Age;
  2. *Haplogroup E-V13 has a Mesolithic (approx. 10 000 BC) age in Bulgaria, from where it spread… (We can immediately point out that this is the haplogroup of the Atlanteans of Manu – K .K.)
  3. *Haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of the earliest agricultural societies along the Black Sea. Overall, in light of recent historical research showing a significant proto-Bulgarian genetic contribution in modern Bulgarians, our data indicate that common male inheritance between proto-Bulgarians and Altaic/Central Asian Turkic-speaking groups was either non-existent or negligible.[30]

In 1965, Charles Hapgut noted that his collection of ancient maps at MIT came from a common source. And it, as the culture of the current humanity, is one, i.e. with homeland in the Balkans [31]. As Hapgut himself stated: “This culture – at least in some respects – could easily be more highly developed than the civilizations of Egypt, Babylonia, Greece and Rome” [32].

Here we will add a gene-semantic tree of the cultures transferred by the teacher people, which scheme is from the third edition of  the book “THE HEAVEN REMEMBERS – PROTOBULGARIAN HISTORY:


The whole picture of the origin of the European peoples, traced through ancient text sources, as well as facts from anthropology, linguistics, ethnography and several other branches of science, is again rooted in the (ancient-) Thracians and (ancient-) Bulgarians. It is necessary to present it in order to know the relationship ties between peoples. Thus, for example, the Cimmerians, descended from the (proto-) Thracians, are the basis of Armenians, Poles, Welsh, Portuguese and Swiss, and the Cimmerians, being brothers to the Sakas, since the two tribes descended from a common sub-tribe of the Moesi, are related with Armenians and with Turks, and they also have connections with the Sumerian culture. To make it clearer, we will present the other appendix developed for the book “The sky remembers – the proto-Bulgarian history”.


And finally, we will note the important fact that a Bulgarian from ancient times has the meaning of a Spiritually Elevated Nobleman. The ethnic name consists of two tokens – BULG and AR.

In the Neolithic era, the name of the Thracians was PERKE. The consonant PRK  is easily traceable and proven as a development in BLG through all Sanskrit-related languages. This means that the development of the primary lexeme can be traced through all possible (proto-) Thracian and (proto-) Bulgarian languages, which were called Indo-European years ago. The primary change of PERKE  is to BRIGI. In Central Asia BRIGI is transformed into BULGI. The meaning of the word is “highland”. For words related to living beings, the higher semantics is contained, and it means Spiritually Elevated.

The second lexeme AR has the semantics of man, since he is in the image and likeness, or mirror of God (RA). In the culture of our ancestors, they were the people called to give culture to other peoples. Because of this, they perceived themselves as noble people.

Through these two lexemes, the meaning of the name Bulgarian is derived. The lexeme IA has the meaning of a country-state, which is why Bulgaria should be called the State of the Spiritually Elevated Nobles.

Because in lectures on such topics we often have to answer questions like: “Why is it that, having given so much, we have nothing, and others always have something of theirs that they are proud of?” – we will finish the topic here with the answer.

Each nation has something truly unique of its own, which is undoubtedly of value to humanity as a whole. The Bulgarians gave the foundations of the world culture, therefore it is not good to look for it in themselves, but to look at the common features of all parts of the cultures all over the earth. These facts are not only for pride, because the obligation and responsibility to the memory of the ancestors for the future is greater. “Whether we say Thracians or Bulgarians, but these are still the state founders of Europe”. The last sentence was shared by Prof. Alexander Fall (note: a profound Bulgarian researcher of Thracian people, culture and influence).

Author: Konstantin Kamenov


––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––

[1] 82-%D0%B7%D0%B0-%D0%B1%D1%8A%D0%BB%D0%B3%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5/#gsc .tab=0


[3]  Gamkrelidze, T.; Ivanov, V., “The Indo-European Language and the Indo-Europeans”, M., 1981

[4]  Dyakonov, I. M., coll. “From Egypt to China”; “About the motherland of the speakers of Indo-European dialects”, M., 1998, p.478

[5]  Atanas Peykov, “Drilling excavations of a Neolithic settlement in Kardzhali, 1972.”

[6]  Rogev, B., “Astronomical foundations of the first Bulgarian calendar”, S., 1974, p.84

[7]  Ryan, W., Pitman, W., “Noah’s Flood”, W., 2000

[8]  Masson, V., “The Lunar Ziggurat in Karakum”, “Around the World” magazine, Moscow, 1974

[9]  Marin Dimitrov, “The Archaeological Cultures of Siberia and We – the Bulgarians”; report from an international scientific conference – Varna, November 15-16, 1997; printed in the conference proceedings on pp. 101-102

[10]  G. G. Grumm – Grzhimailo, “Monuments of the Karasuk Stage in Central Kazakhstan”; downloaded from the website “Vehi” on the Internet

[11]  A. P. Okladnikov, “Neolithic and Bronze Age Pribaikalia”; Moscow – Leningrad 1955; Part III; pp. 9-10

[12]  Povel, L., J. Bergier. Morning of the Wizards. S., 2000, p. 179

[13]  Kaminsky, Heinz. The Atlantis reality. S., 1998, p. 212.

[14]  Kaminsky, Heinz. The Atlantis reality. S., 1998, p. 212.

[15]  The Discoveries and Researches of the Chinese Ruins, Beijing, 1994, p. 145

[16]  “Stone Library”, magazine “Cosmos”, 1989, no. 7, page 91

[17]  Theophanes. I Bonn., p.222.


[19]  Boval, R., Gilbert, E., The Orion Riddle, S., 1996, pp.139–146.

[20]  Kamenov, K., The sky remembers III. P., 2011, pp. 60-63.

[21]  Kamenov, K., Who brought the Sumerian ziggurats. P., 2008, pp. 17-18.

[22]  Kamenov, K., Heaven remembers II – God sees. P., 2007, pp. 129-130.

[23]  Kamenov, K., The sky remembers – proto-Bulgarian history, V., 2000, p. 93.

[24]  Kamenov, K., The sky remembers – proto-Bulgarian history; third augmented and revised edition (in press).

[25]  Hancock, G., The Ices of the Gods, Book One., S., 1998, p. 50.

[26]  Ibid.

[27]  Ibid., p.5.

[28]  Kamenov, K., The sky remembers – proto-Bulgarian history; third, augmented and revised edition (in press).



[31]  See Hancock, G., Footsteps of the Gods., S., 1998.

[32]  Hapgut, C., Maps of Ancient Sea Kings, S., 2004, p.223.

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